The entry into force of the European Union's Payment Directive PSD2 (Payment Services Directment 2) at the end of 2019 made paying by credit card online safer but unfortunately also more complicated. Since then, many payments have to be confirmed twice - e.g. using tan and 3DS.
There are exceptions for small sums, regular payments and / or trusted dealers (where you buy more often).
Here is a list of possible errors, causes and solutions: